But it is better to avoid the reputation of the Noun Hari and say –
Hari is absent, because he is ill.
A word that is thus used instead of a noun is called a Pronoun [pronoun means for-a-noun.]
Forms of the personal Pronouns
The following are the different forms of the personal pronouns:-
FIRST PERSON (Masculine or feminine)
SECOND PERSON (Masculine or feminine)
Singular / PluralNominative
Possessive your, yours
THIRD PERSON( Masculine, Feminine or Neuter)
All genders Nominative
REFLEXIVE AND EMPHATIC PRONOUNS :-
When –self is added to my, your, him, her, it and-selves to our, your,them, we get what are called compound personal pronouns. They are called reflexive pronouns when the action done by the subject turns back (reflects) upon the subject; as
I hurt myself we hurt ourselves
You will hurt yourself. You will hurt yourselves
He hurts himself.
She hurts herself. They hurt themselves.
The horse hurt itself.
It will be noticed that each of these Reflexive pronouns is used as the object of a verb, and refers to the same person or thing as that denoted by the subject of the verb.
Now look at the following sentences:-
I will do it myself.
I myself saw him do it.
We will see to it ourselves.
You yourself can best explain.
He himself said so.
She herself says so.
It was told so by the teacher himself.
We saw the prime minister himself.
The town itself is not very large.
They themselves admitted their guilt.
It will be seen that here compound personal pronouns are used for the sake of emphasis , and are therefore called Emphatic Pronouns.
DEMONSTRATIVE, INDEFINITE AND DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS :-
Consider the following sentences:-
This is a present from my uncle.
These are merely excuses.
Both cars are good; but this is better that that.
Mumbai mangoes are better than those of Bangalore.
Make haste, that`s a good boy.[here that = one who makes haste]
I may have offended, but such was not my intention.
The stranger is welcomed as such.
That is the Red Fort.
it will be noticed that the Pronouns in italics are used to point out the objects to which they refer, and are , therefore called Demonstrative Pronouns.
This , that , etc. are (demonstrative) adjectives when they are used with nouns; as,
This book is mine
That pen is yours.
These books are mine.
Those pens are yours.
What was that noise?
This horse is better than that horse.
All such people ought to be avoided.
This refers to what is close at hand, and nearest to the thought or person of the speaker; that refers to what is `over there` , farther away, and more remote.
Consider the following sentences:-
One hardly knows what to do.
One does not like to say so, but it is only true.
One cannot be too careful of one`s ( not, his) good name.
One must not boast of one`s own success.
One must use one`s best efforts if one wishes to succeed.
One must not praise one`s self.
None of his poems are well known.
None but fools have ever believed it.
All were drowned.
Some are born great.
Some say he is a sharper.
Somebody has stolen my watch.
Nobody was there to rescue the child.
Few escaped unhurt.
Many of them were Gukhas.
We did not see any of them again.
One or other of us will be there.
Do good to others.
Did you ask anybody to come?
What is everybody`s business is nobody`s business.
His words are in everyone`s mouth.
All these Pronouns in italics refer to persons or things in a general way, but do not refer to persons or thing in particular. They are, therefore called INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.
Most of these words may also be used as adjectives.
I will take you there one day.
Any fool can do that.
He is a man of few words.
Some milk was spilt.
Consider the following sentences:-
Each of the boys gets a prize.
Each took it in turn.
Either of these roads leads to the railway station.
Either of you can go.
Neither of the accusations is true.
Each, either, neither are called Distributive pronouns because they refer to persons or things one at time. For this reason they are always singular and as such followed by the verb in the singular.
Each is used to denote every one of a number of persons or things taken singly.
Either means the one or the others of zero.
Neither means not the one nor the other of the two. It is the negative of either.
Hence either and neither should be used only in speaking of two persons or things. When more than two are spoken of, any, no one, none should be used.
The position of the pronoun each should be noticed. It may have three positions.
1.a) Each of the men received a reward.
b) Each of these horses cost five thousand rupees.
c) I bought each of these mangoes for three rupees.
2. a) These men received each a reward.
b) These horses cost each of three thousand rupees.
3. a) These horses costs five thousand rupees each.
b) I bought these mangoes three rupees each.
The third order is usual after a numeral. We do not say, “The men received a reward each “, but we say, “The men received five hundred rupees each “.
In the following sentences, each, either and neither are used as adjectives. They are followed by nouns of the singular number:-
1. The two men hate each other.
2. They cheated one another.
If we analyse them ---
1. The two men hate, each hates other.
2. They cheated, one cheated another.
Each and one really belong to the subject, other and another are objects. But each other and one another have become in practice compound pronouns (called reciprocal pronouns) and are rarely separated even by a preposition. Thus we say :]
The brothers quarreled with each other.
They all gave evidence against one another.
Note :- The one-time rule that each other should be used in speaking of two persons or things, one another in speaking of more than two is no longer strictly observed, ` the three brothers quarreled with each other` is now accepted as idiomatic.
Read the following pair of sentences:-
I met Hari. Hari had just returned.
I have found the pen. I lost the pen.
Here is the book. You lent me the book.
Let us now combine each of the above pairs into one sentence.
I met Hari who had just returned.
I have found the pen which I had lost.
Here is the book that you lent me.
Now let us examine the work done by each of the words, who, which, that.
The word who is used instead of that noun Hari. It, therefore, does the work of a pronoun.
The word who joins or connects two statements. It, therefore does the work of a conjunction.
The word who, therefore, does double-work—the work of a pronoun and also the work of a conjunction.
We might, therefore, call it a conjunctive pronoun.
It is however, called a Relative pronoun because it refers or relates ( i.e., carries us back) to some noun going before ( here, the noun Hari ) which is called its Antecedent.
Forms of the Relative Pronouns:
The relative pronoun who has different forms for Accusative and Genitive.
Singular and plural Nominative
Relative pronouns are used to join together two sentences. Relative pronouns in English are WHO, WHOSE, WHICH, WHAT and THAT.
1. The girl lost a ring. It was made of gold.
The girl lost a ring which was made of gold.
2. The police caught a thief. He was breaking into a house.
The police caught the thief who was breaking into a house.
3. This is my friend. I met him yesterday.
This is the man whom I met yesterday.
4. The tiger was captured last week. It has been sent to the zoo.
The tiger that was captured last week has been sent to the zoo.
5. I believe that. I saw that.
I believe what I saw.
6. I saw a man. His bald was bald.
I saw a man whose head was bald.
1. The relative pronoun WHO generally refers to human beings and WHICH to animals and inanimate things.
2. The relative pronoun THAT is often used for WHO, WHOM or WHICH.
e.g. : This is the car that(=which) johny bought.
Abraham Lincoln was the best president that (=who) ever ruled America.
The girls that (=whom) the prime minister praised were very much pleased.
3. WHOM is generally used in formal English but it is common to use WHO in ordinary conversation.
e.g: The man who (m) they caught was a thief,
The man who (m) she fell in love with was very poor.
4. The relative pronoun also can be omitted.
e.g: All the money he had earned had been stolen.
The rumour we heard proved to be correct.
5. The above sentence can be written in the following ways.
All the money that he had earned had been stolen
The rumour which we heard proved to be correct.
Who, whom, whose, which and what when they are used to ask questions they are called INTERROGATIVE pronouns.
e.g.: Whose is that pen?
What is that matter?
Who is that lady?
Which is your car?
Whom did you see?
Consider the following sentences also:-
Who is there? Who are you?
About whom are you talking? / who are you talking about?
Whom do you want? / who do you want/
Whose is this book?
Which is the house?
Which do you prefer, tea or coffee?
What is the matter? What do you want?
What will all the neighbors’ say?
It will be noticed that the pronouns in underlined are similar in form to Relative Pronouns. But the work which they do is different. They are here used for asking questions, and are, therefore, called INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS.
In the following sentences the interrogative pronouns are used in asking indirect questions.
I asked who was speaking.
I do not know who is there.
Tell me what you have done.
Ask what he wants.
Say which you would like the best.
Again consider the following sentences:-
Who gave you that knife?
Whose is this book?
Whom did you see? / who did you see?
To whom were you speaking? / who were you speaking to?
What is that?
What do you want?
Which is he?
Which do you prefer?
Masculine and feminine(Singular and plural)
Today the accusative who is more usual than whom, especially in spoken English.
What and which do not have different forms for different cases.
1. Who is used of persons only.
Who spoke? (We expect the answer to be the name of a person.)
Who goes there? Who made the top score?
Who is knocking at the door? Who says so?
Whose is this umbrella? Whom did you see?
2. Which is used of both persons and things. It implies selection, that is, it implies a question concerning a limited number.
Which is your friend? Which are your books?
Which of the boys saw him?
Which of you has done this?
Which of these books is yours?
Which of the pictures do you like best?
Which of you by taking thought can add one cubit into his statue?
Which will you take?
3. What is used of things only?
What have you found? (We expect the answer to be the name of a thing.)